P02 – New and old worlds on paper: Literary, cultural and imperial imaginaries in the press of the colonial period

23.05.2017, A​uditorium C1.04​, 1st floor, Building II, ISCTE-IUL

P02.A – 09.00-10.20 | P02.B – 10.30-11.50 

Sandra Sousa – University of Central Florida, EUA)

Nazir Can – Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

Abstract: This panel invites discussions of how various media were used to promote a certain idea of literature – and, with it, to convey several worldviews – during the Portuguese colonial empire. Our aim is to analyze the modes of literary and cultural dissemination that bridged the then Portuguese colonies and the metropolis. Presentations examine relations and clashes among cultural ties and literary identities as they emerged and developed within these territories. Some examples of journals and magazines to take into account are the O Brado Africano, a Claridade, Mensagem, Cultura II, O Boletim Geral das Colónias/Ultramar.  In a broader sense, we hope to explore how these heterogeneous spaces of dissemination contributed to the construction of a cultural imaginary for each of the colonized territories as well as for the colonizer Portugal.

Keywords: Colonial press, Literature, Arts, Cultural imaginary


P02.A – 09.00-10.20


1. Sandra Sousa – University of Central Florida, EUA

“Colonial/Overseas Arts and Letters” in the Boletim Geral das Colónias e do Ultramar

In this paper I propose to discuss the Boletim Geral das Colónias (General Bulletin of the Colonies) and the Boletim Geral do Ultramar (General Bulletin of the Overseas) as informative vehicles about the field of art and letters during the Portuguese Colonial Empire. Based on the montly publication of this Bulletin, from February 1948 onwards, of a section of “Arts and Letters”, I aim to verify and discuss the sudden integration of a space dedicated to literary and cultural divulgation; the form in which this divulgation is transmitted to the public; the advantages of this type of divulgation in the Portuguese colonial space; the dynamic between centre and the peripheries; and, in a wider sense, how this space contributed to the construction of a cultural imaginary about the colonies and about the colonizer Portugal.

Keywords: Boletim Geral das Colónias/Ultramar, cultural and literary divulgation


2. Aida Freudenthal – Independent researcher, investigadora independente, Portugal

From the Mensagem to the Anticolonial – cultural consciousness and political denounce

This paper assumes it’s restrict character when approaching a Bulletin named Mensagem (Message), published between 1948 and 1952 and, after an interregnum, again between 1957 and 1964. Through this period, an association formed by students from the Portuguese colonies and from the, then, metropole – the Casa dos Estudantes do Império (House of the Students of the Empire) –not only informed its associates but also sensitized vast sectors of the youth from in Portugal and in the Empire. From the avowal of Asian and African cultures in their diversity and specificity, to the defense of civic rights to the peoples from the colonies, the themes approached did not discard the definition of singular identitarian paths, through innovative literary, musical and artistic contents. Fighting for survival, the Mensagem was also committed to reinforce associative solidarity, in the defense of the rights of students, in close articulation with the Portuguese and international students movement of the 1950’s and 1960’s. Its last number, published in 1964, coincided with the birth of the newspaper Anti-Colonial, with 4 numbers printed in a clandestine press of the Portuguese Communist Party. A new political context justified this publication that openly denounced the colonial war initiated in 1961, a war that provoked a growing critical position of the Portuguese youth. We propose to enquire the bridges between the two publications and how they expressed distinct moments in the process of extinction of the Portuguese Colonial Empire.

Keywords: Casa dos Estudantes do Império, Mensagem, anti-colonial, colonial war


3. Duarte Drumond Braga – Universidade de São Paulo, Brasil

Between the Portuguese Saudosismo and internationalist vanguardism: the manifest of the Revista da Índia (1913)

In the beginning of the 20th Century we find a generation of Goan publicists interested in bringing their community, the Portuguese-speaking Catholics, closer to the imaginary of classic India. This group of writers and poets published in 1913 the Revista da Índia, coordinated by Paulino Dias and Adolfo Costa. Its manifest, probably written by the first one, constitutes an aesthetic-ideological (and also socio-political) reflexion of great interest that this paper aims to study. The text seems to propose a compromise with the coeval Portuguese literary context (in particular the Renascença Portuguesa and the notion of renaissance, central to this group of Oporto); on the other hand, it celebrates the cosmopolitan idea of modernity, investing in its incendiary, demolishing aspects (words from the text), notions that approach them to the Vanguards and Modernism, even if the literary texts of most authors do not confirm this second aspect in aesthetical terms. In a moment of celebration of Orpheu and of international reevaluation of Modernism, we cannot lose the opportunity of knowing the vanguardist action in Portuguese language in its whole, which certainly is not reducible to the magazine Orpheu or to the Week of Modern Art, in the Brazilian case, and to try to read under this light, keeping the just measures of things and being aware of the aesthetical-ideological hesitations, an object so interesting as the manifest of theRevista da India.

Keywords: Goa, India, Renaiscence, Modernism, Vanguards, Brazil/Portugal


 4. Hilarino da Luz – CHAM, FCSH, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Universidade dos Açores, Portugal

The impact of the Claridade in the birth of litterary modernism in Cape Verde

The cape-verdian literature had known a thematic and formal renewing with the publication of the magazine Claridade, in March 1936, in the island of S. Vicente. Published in two phases, it lived a moment of silence between 1938 and 1946. The first phase, from March 1936 to March 1937 and with only three numbers published, was marked by the collaboration of few writers. The founders (Baltasar Lopes, Manuel Lopes and Jorge Barbosa) were only joined by Osvaldo Alcântara (pseudonimous of Baltasar Lopes), Pedro Corsino de Azevedo, with two poems in the first number, and an article of José Osório de Oliveira in the second number.

The second phase, with six numbers published and irregularly, happned between 1947 and 1960. In 1947 numbers four and five were published; in 1948, number six; in 1949, number seven; in 1958, number eight and in 1960, number nine. Nuno Miranda was the editor of numbers four to seven and Joaquim Tolentino of numbers eight and nine.

Along its publication there was an undisclouse of new aesthetic and thematic proposals, initiating literary modernism in Cape Verde, and the authors were transformed into the agents of their own circumstance, through resistance and non-acceptance of a cultural and economic propaganda that contamined the inhabitants of the archipelago.

Keywords: Cape Verde; litterature, Claridade; modernism


 P02.B – 10.30-11.50


5. Carlos Valentim – ISCTE-IUL, Portugal

A bulletin to rediscover Portuguese Guinea

Between 1946 and 1973, a 110 number and a special issue were published of the Boletim Cultural da Guiné Portuguesa. In the beginning of this periodical the tone of the discourse was that of the rediscover of “Guinea”. It is easy to conclude that the Bulletin was born as an instrument of knowledge(s) set to serve the local colonial government, in the moment of recreation of the Portuguese Empire that followed the end of the Second World War. The Boletim Cultural da Guiné Portuguesa quickly imposed itself as an innovative periodical in comparison with similar coeval periodicals. As such it is important to ask two questions: which was the influence in its edition, production and conception of other foreign periodicals, in particular that of the bulletin of the «Institut Français de l’Afrique Noire»; at a second level, which was its impact in the birth of similar periodicals in the Empire and in the Portuguese metropolitan space.

Keywords: Bulletin, Centre for studies, Colony, Guinea, Institut Fundamental de l’Afrique Noire


6. Maria de Deus Manso – Universidade de Évora / CICP, Portugal e  Manuel Lobato, Centro de História, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal

 A suggestive sampling on Jesuits and Jesuitism in Goan cultural history and historiography: the Boletim do Instituto Vasco da Gama (1926-1960)

The Boletim do Instituto Vasco da Gama, a publication starting on the eve of the creation of Estado Novo, represents the richest contribute to the history of Goa by Goan authors along the last 35 years of the colonial regime. In the BIVG a prominent place was occupied by essays like “A mulher indo-portuguesa” (the Indo-Portuguese Woman”), by Propércia Correia Afonso de Figueiredo, published between 1928 and 1931. Amongst the authors with large studies stand historians and men of culture, such as Amâncio Gracias, Delduque da Costa or Benedito Gomes, published very large studies as small sections of their writings were being published over time in a long set of BIVG issues . Authored by P. Pissurlencar, the most prominent Goan historian in the late colonial period, Portugueses e Maratas (Portuguese and Marathas), published in the BIVG between 1928 and 1933, it would be republished in a two volumes separate edition.

This paper proposes to analyse how, in the process of rewriting the religious and cultural history of Goa, these authors and other renowned collaborators of BIVG recovered, as an identitarian construction, the writings and the personalities of the Jesuits of the Portuguese Padroado. This set of Goan authors, though restrict as it may be, allows us to understand the close link between the Goan elites self-perception and the supposed image coined by the Jesuits themselves, as the late Goan colonial authors emphasized the political role of the Jesuit as mediators and agents of diplomacy, or only their role as cultural brokers and educators, pioneers of the press and of the studies on the Indian vernacular languages, as well as real or fictitious initiators of popular traditions positioned between ethnography, myth and memory.

Keywords: Jesuits, Goa, historiography, culture


7. Daniel Melo  – CHAM, FCSH, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Universidade dos Açores, Portugal

The reception of the work and legacy of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi in colonial Portugal: between peace and war

In this paper we aim to analyse the reception of the work of Mohadas Karamchand Gandhi in colonial Portugal of the 20th century. Gandhi was one of the most relevant leaders of Indian independence of British colonial yoke and, in that sense, it is pertinent to verify how the reception of his work and legacy was in the Portuguese press. In this we will include also the “metropolitan” press that focused colonial themes, such as the influential magazine Seara Nova. The independence of India would mark the end of Portuguese India, and in such context it is also interesting to verify if Gandhi’s work (or about him) passed the sieve of censorship since the 1950’s until 1974. Before this rupture Gandhi had already published his memories, amongst other works, which were published in Portugal in 1943, with careful paratexts of the Goan Telo de Mascarenhas. In a context so disruptive such as that of the II World War, which were the aims of the publicist with such gesture? After that other books were published, in particular the translation, by Aster, of the reference biography written by Louis Fischer. The influence of Gandhi went back to his interventive stay in segregationist South Africa, where he reached to publish a periodical (the Indian Opinion), a double legacy also to be researched in the periodicals of his Portuguese readers.

Keywords: Gandhi; reception of thought and work: colonial; Goa; India; nationalism; Portuguese press; History of the printed word


8. Tereza Sena – Centro de Estudos das Culturas Sino-Ocidentais, lnstituto Politécnico de Macau, Macau, China

The “Instituto de Macau” and the Macau’s Portuguese Intellectual Programatic Idearium from the beginnings of the Twentieth Century

The “Instituto de Macau” (Institut of Macau, 1920) consubstantiates a project of cultural production and intervention; of documental safeguarding and of aesthetical intervention which will survive the institute, persisting as Macau’s Portuguese Intellectual Programmatic Idearium along the twentieth century. This Idearium guided the creation of the museum, library/archive; the publication of the “Arquivos de Macau”, which compiled documents, iconography and archaeological findings and reproduced old newspapers; the elaboration of the first textbook about the History of Macau; the performing of studies of historiographic, ethnographic, linguistic, artistic profile and some sinology, disseminated in conferences, exhibitions or edition, in book or in periodical press. As such, we will open a new pave to the study of the institution besides the traditional reference to its scarce activity and to the reproduction of the photography that testifies the symbolic pilgrimage of its members to the bust of Luís de Camões, given that the association aimed “the study of the Portuguese action and influence in the West and that of sinology under all its aspects”.

For that reason, we propose a prosopography approach of the programmatic idearium systematized in the creation of the “Instituto de Macau”, drawing the collective cultural biography of the group that created it to pursue this project of cultural, scientific and civic intervention, which also comprehended periodical press, pushing the debate to the sphere of the history of ideas, so neglected in Macau, and, consequently, to the more vast field of comparative studies.

Keywords: Memory, culture, archive, historiography, press, cultural associativism, Macau, “Instituto de Macau”, “Arquivos de Macau”


BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES


Aida Freudenthal holds a master degree in contemporary history of Africa and Angola by the Faculty of Social and Human Sciences (FSHSc) of NOVA University of Lisbon. She was fellow researcher (1992-2004) at the Center of African Studies of the Institute of Tropical Scientific Research, Lisbon, Portugal. Her research interests and her works are focused on History of Angola (19th and 20th Centuries) and include: social history; periodical press; cultural and identity representation; oral history; rural and urban history of the 19th century; Jewish immigration in Angola. She has participated in several scientific congresses and published several articles in journals, as well as book chapters in collections of essays. Her master thesis was published in Luanda, in 2004. She edited a 17th Century Angolan code, published in Luanda, in 2013. She curated the documentary selection for the exhibition: CEI. Farol de Liberdade. Lisboa 2014.

Carlos Valentim holds a Degree in History (1998) and a Master’s degree in Modern History (2008) from the Faculty of Arts of the University of Lisbon. He has a Diploma of Post-Graduate Studies in History, Security and International Relations (2009), and attends the PhD in the same studies at ISCTE – University Institute of Lisbon. He is an Effective Member of the Navy Academy and Geography Society of Lisbon, and associate researcher at the Naval Research Center of Navy School/Portuguese Navy, and also associate researcher in the Contemporary History Center at ISCTE- University Institute of Lisbon. Currently is Head of the Museology Department in the Maritime Museum – Lisbon.

Daniel Melo is a historian born in Brussels in 1970. Research fellow at the CHAM (FCSH, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Universidade dos Açores), he is currently working on a research project about publishing in the Atlantic world, funded by the Portuguese national agency Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia. Among its publications, he has coordinated the dossiê “Um livro, uma revista, uma canção contra a Guerra Colonial” (Cultura, vol. 34, 2015).

Duarte Drumond Braga (Phd, Univ. of Lisbon, 2014) is a Postdoctoral researcher and lecturer at the University of São Paulo. He holds a Phd in Comparative Studies from the University of Lisbon (thesis: Orientalism in 20th century Portuguese Poetry: Pessanha, Pessoa and Osório de Castro).  He is currently part of the Thinking Goa Project (Funded by Fapesp, Brazil) and the Portuguese Orientalism Project (Funded by Fct, Portugal).  His current research interests are the Lusophone Literatures from Goa and Macau, Portuguese orientalist writing and Poetry in Portuguese (19th-20th centuries). He has co-edited five books and several articles concerning these fields of research.

Hilarino Carlos Rodrigues da Luz, born in Cape Verde, is Integrated Researcher and Postdoctoral Fellow of Aquém e d’Além-Mar History Center (CHAM), FCSH, Universidade Nova de Lisboa and Universidade dos Açores, Doctor of Portuguese Studies, specialization in Literatures and Portuguese Language Cultures, with the thesis The imaginary and quotidian Cape Verdean in the literary production of Jorge Barbosa, Master in Portuguese Studies, specialization in Literary Studies, and Licensed in Modern Languages and Literatures, Variant of Portuguese Studies, Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas, Universidade Nova de Lisboa. She has several articles published and a vast professional experience, namely as a teacher of Portuguese Language and of History and Geography of Portugal. Demonstrates research interests in the areas of Literature and Portuguese Language Culture; African Literature of Portuguese Language; And the Colonial Press, namely the magazine Claridade.

Manuel Leão Marques Lobato is an Integrated Researcher at the History Center (University of Lisbon) and a lecturer in FLUL’s Asian History and Studies courses. His areas of research are: history of the Portuguese presence in Mozambique and the East African coast, and India, and the Malay-Indonesian archipelago during the Modern Age. He is author and editor of seven books and thematic dossiers, among them: History of Timor no Journal of Asian History (48.2. Summer 2014); “War-making, Raiding, Slave Hunting and Piracy in the Maluku Archipelago”, in Y. H. Teddy SIM (ed.), Piracy and Surreptitious Activities in the Malay Archipelago and Adjacent Seas 1600-1840. Singapura: Springer, 2014. 77-104; “Os Jesuítas perante o islão e a política religiosa do imperador Akbar. Notas de leitura”, in F. Contente Domingues, J. Silva Horta e P. D. Vicente (org.), D’aquém, d’além e d’ultramar. Homenagem a António Dias Farinha. Vol. I. Lisbon: Centro de História – FLUL, 2015, pp. 457-478.

Maria de Deus Beites Manso is Assistant Professor at the History Department of the University of Évora and collaborates regularly with Brazilian universities. In 2015, she was visiting professor funded by CAPES at several univerities: Federal University of Minas Gerais; Spain, Macao and Japan. She participates regularly with other research centers in Portugal: CHFLUL and CEI / ISCAP. In Brazil she integrates several research groups certified by the CNPq, for example, Slavery, Mestizaje, Transit of Cultures and Globalization – XV to XIX Century; Jesuits in America, and History of the Iberian World, and MAPEAL: Macao for the Promotion and Exchange between Asia-Pacific and Latin America). Her research areas include: History of Portuguese Expansion and Colonization; History of Portuguese Culture; Theories and Problems of the History of Portuguese Expansion, and Political Cultures and Colonial Societies. Her research topics are: the construction of globalization from the fifteenth century onwards, considering the religious history of women / gender, slavery and crossbreeding; the CPLP (Portuguese Language Peoples Community), and on the international aspects of the Portuguese speaking cultures and people, from a historical point of view.

Nazir Ahmed Can is Professor of African Literature at the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Graduated in Literature (Universidade do Porto, 2001) and Humanities (Universitat Pompeu Fabra, 2011), Master and PhD in Theory of Literature and Comparative Literature (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 2008 and 2011, respectively) and Post-Doctor in African Literature (Universidade de São Paulo, 2015), he has published several articles on African literatures of Portuguese and French language. He is also the author of the book Discurso e poder nos romances de João Paulo Borges Coelho (Maputo, Alcance Editores, 2015) and co-organizer of the collective volume Indicities/Indices/Indícios. Hybridations problématiques dans les littératures de l’Océan Indien (Ille-sur-Têt, Éditions K’A, 2010).

Sandra Sousa holds a PhD in Portuguese and Brazilian Studies (Brown University), Assistant Professor at the University of Central Florida, where she teaches Portuguese and Latin American Studies. Her research interests include colonialism and post-colonialism; race relations in Mozambique; feminine writing in Portuguese, Brazilian and African literature. She is the author of the book Ficções do Outro: Império, Raça e Subjectividade no Moçambique Colonial.

Tereza Sena is a researcher of the Centre of Sino-Western Cultural Studies, Macao Polytechnic Institute. Specialist in Marquis of Pombal, manorial and municipal powers in the end of the “Ancient Regime”, early Portuguese liberalism and other political and cultural moments of Portuguese contemporary history, is dedicated, since 1988, to the study of historiography and history, culture and literature of Macau, including themes such as political autonomy; history of translation, of international trade of South China (18th-19th centuries) and of missionarism in China and Southeast Asia. Has an international academic career and lectured and published extensively in Macau, China, Portugal, USA, Germany, Italy, Thailand, Hong-Kong, Japan, Poland and Hungary.

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