P13 – The political-cultural role of the Metropolitan Colonial Periodical Press in the Imperial Public Sphere 

24.05.2017, Amphitheater III,  FLUL

P13.A – 09.00-10.20 | P13.B – 10.30-11.50

Adelaide Vieira Machado – CHAM, FCSH, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Universidade dos Açores, Portugal

Isadora Ataíde – Independent Researcher, Portugal

Abstract: Governmental and independent colonial periodical press published at the Metropoles of modern empires has fulfilled a role of cultural and political mediation which urges to be inventoried, studied and categorized. The interlacement of the colonial question with the theoretical and doctrinarian idea of democracy, both developing in pair with the massification forged by the industrial era, have highlighted the problem of equality as agent of deconstruction and of construction of new realities. The new-born modernity has outline through the press not only new actors, as with the case engaged intellectuals, but also a new idea of embracing culture that viewed to link and explain human totality. It is in this line of enquiry that appear different concepts of Empire, of Metropole and of Colony. The relationship between the totality and the fragment finds new different readings that the press translates and spreads. Metropolitan colonial press is that which strives to transmit coeval new colonial models, in an effort to implement or modify them and to conquer followers, in a process of change and continue validation with the colonial elites in presence. Thus, the idea of metropole changes, in accordance with and in the presence of these models in process of theorization, creating a public sphere of opinion, a place where ideas are renewed, new forms of sociability forged and identities rebuilt in a relation of proximity, distance or opposition regarding governmental discourse. It is this cultural and political richness that press has opened space to, which this panel aims to present and open to change of ideas

Keywords: Colonial Press, Metropole, Colonies, Democracy, Public space


P13.A – 09.00-10.20


1.  Sónia Henrique – IHC, FCSH, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal

Portuguese public opinion at the time of the Boletim e annaes do Conselho Ultramarino

After the 1820 Revolution in Portugal, one of the worries of the Parliament was the press. Without liberty of press it would not be possible a Constitutional Monarchy. Liberty of press was nuclear to affirm civil liberty. Taking into account the importance of periodicals in the second half of 19th century, and submitted to the theme of this International Congress, this paper aims to analyse the complexity of public reality through its expression in a particular type of periodicals, electing as object of reflexion a periodical specialized of Governmental patronage: the Boletim e Annaes do Conselho Ultramarino. Through the reading and analysis of this official publication, it is aimed to think about the oscillation of power; as well as the influence that the successive Governments expressed in the publication, underlining the events that provoked greater impact in the public opinion. To access the constructive and relational dynamic of this publication to understand who was its target audience, its competences and what was intented in its choice by those who drew a symbolic space in which values were matured and shared.

Keywords: Overseas Council, colonial press, official publication


2. Tânia Regina de Luca, Unesp, Brasil

The Universal exhibitions of Antwerp (1885) and Paris (1889) in the magazine ‘A Ilustração’ (1884-1892)

The illustrated magazines constitute a very specific type of periodical, which had its golden time in the second half of the 19th century, before direct methods of photography reproduction were available, as happened around 1900. The first print of the kind was ‘The Illustrated London News’ (1842), pattern replicated around the world, including in Brazil and Portugal. This communication will present the results of a research in the ‘A Ilustração’, launched in Paris in 1884 and fortnightly sent to Lisbon and Rio de Janeiro. The magazine circulated until 1892 and had as its director Mariano Pina, correspondent in Paris of the newspaper ‘Gazeta de Notícias’ (RJ, 1875), who by the end of 1885 became its owner. According to the patern of this kind of press, the aim was to offer a product well finished from the graphic point of view, with half of its 16 pages occupied by beautiful prints, most times related to events of the moment, with particular focus on the Portuguese colonies.

Keywords: “A Ilustração”, Mariano Pina, Universal Exhibitions


3. Josenildo de Jesus Pereira – Universidade Federal do Maranhão /Instituto de Ciencias Sociais/ICS-UL

The magazine “Portugal em África” and the construction of the Portuguese III Empire

From the end of the 19th century, the African continente was the stage of the incursion of a new wave of systematic colonial actions performed by Portugal and other European countries. In the configuration of the “Portuguese Third Empire” it is highlighted the political-cultural role of the Congregation of the Holy Ghost, officially founded in 28 September 1848 by Father Liberman. This Congregation started to publish, monthly, in 1894, the scientific magazine – ‘Portugal em África’ (PA). The magazine had two periods of publication. The first was between 1894 and 1910 (colonial phase) and the second from 1944 until 1973 (theological phase). Regarding Portugal, the redactors underlined that ‘the resurrection of one part of its great did and glories is only possiblie through the creation of a new Lusitanian Emporium, in the Black Continent’. For that reason the magazine should be scientific ‘in most of its immense ramifications: politics, religion, moral, law, administration, economy, history, geography, geology, zoology, botanics, climatology, ethnology’and other branches. In this sense, the analysis of its contents regarding the economy, religion, administration, geography, botanics and ethnogrophy, in its colonial phase may contribute to our better understandment of the fundaments of the ‘III Portuguese Empire’ and, by extension, of the logic of the representations of Africa and the Africans in the Portuguese colonial discourse of that time.

Keywords: “Portugal em África”, colonialism, Africa


4. Sérgio Neto – Centro de Estudos Interdisciplinares do Século XX (CEIS20), Portugal

 Africa in the ‘Jornal da Europa’

The activity of the Jornal da Europa should be understood from the standing point of the ideals of redemption that marked the intellectuality and the political discourse since the mid-1800. A series of periodicals dedicated to the overseas thematic saw the daylight inscribed in that spirit. Informatives and/or combatives, these newspapers and magazines struggled to enlarge the reduced space that colonial news occupied in the press. Almost all of them were scarcely innovative in the way of transmiting their aims. They continued to address a very specific public, in other words, the overseas circles. They also tried, through the publication of charts and data about the economic richness of the overseas territories, to attract the potential settler.

That was not the editorial line of the periodical under analysis. Although some articles about economy occupied more pages, themes such as the culture of the ‘indigenous’, the beauty of the landscapes, travel impressions and the romanticized hardships of the settlers daily life, tended to occupy a significant share. Anticipating what Estado Novo would promote in its publications, the Jornal da Europa combined literature and propaganda, in an attempt to captivate the readers. The following paper will try to draw its trajectory and descrive its role in the Portuguese journalistic space, soon after to be occupied by the Estado Novo and its mechanisms linked to the Agência Geral das Colónias (General Agency of the Colonies) and the Sociedade de Propaganda Nacional (Society of National Propaganda).

Keywords: Press, Colonialism, Literature, Travel, Propaganda


P13.B – 10.30-11.50


5. Célia Reis – IHC, FCSH, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal

Portuguese Colonies in Asia in the Newspaper «A Capital»

The newspaper «A Capital» appeared a little before the Republic regime and it was published, with small interruptions, until 1926; after this moment there were more breaks until 1938. Deeply associated with the Republican defence, it became, in the 1920s, part of the «Democratic Left».

In this paper I analyse the Portuguese colonies in Asia (India, Macau and Timor) between 1910 and 1926, considering its importance in public opinion through this newspaper. This study also allows the verification of the different themes associated with these spaces and its evolution in these years.

Keywords:  A Capital, India, Macau, Timor


 6.  Diego Schibelinski – Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Brasil

 Humour, Art and Politics: the colonial question in the satirical illustrated press of the Portuguese First Republic  

The ideologies of domination that sustained the colonial regimes possessed foundations that extrapolated the barrier of the material. More than dominating through the force, it was necessary to promote the construction of ‘truths’ which, by creating an imaginary about the Other and the place he should occupy, legitimated the asymmetric social relations created by the colonial social system. Regarding the Portuguese case, some authors call up attention to the importance that the illustrated press may assume in the process of formulation, diffusion and consolidation of a colonial imaginary. With that in mind, this work views to localize and identify how the Portuguese colonies in Africa were represented in cartoons published by satirical press of the First Republic. The titles accessed were those that compose the digital archive of the Hemeroteca Municipal de Lisboa. After a careful analysis, we obtained a group of 52 cartoons, published between 1909 and 1927 from five newspapers. We considered as potential sources for analysis, the cartoons that, published during the suggested temporal arch, presented direct or indirect representations of the African colonies or of Africans. These cartoons, after being found, were identified, catalogued and analysed. The treatment of cartoons as sources was performed taking in account the bibliography dedicated to the theme.

Keywords: Colonial visual archive, colonial imaginary, cartoons as documents


 7. Isadora de Ataíde Fonseca – investigadora independente

Democracy in debate in the Empire in the Gazeta das Colónias

To analyse and discuss the concepts, values and democratic principles disseminated by the newspaper Gazeta das Colónias (1924-1926), published in Lisbon, in the context of the colonial political culture is the object of this paper. The concepts and democratic principles are reviewed at the light of the theories of Political Science, articulated with the Portuguese republican context and contextualized in the scenario of the colonial empire. The themes and contents – in the editorial, opinion and news ambits – regarding the political regime, the colonial administration and the rights and socio-political duties in the overseas spaces are explored to analyse the perceptions and the demands of democratic principles and practices, as well as the politics and actions, for the colonial spaces and their individuals. The paper also explores the idea of the existence of a ‘public space’ and a ‘public sphere’ in colonial context, in which were articulated common problematics and demands between the different colonies.

Keywords: Empire, democracy, public sphere, Gazeta das Colónias, Portugal


8. Adelaide Vieira Machado – CHAM, FSCH, Universidade Nova de Lisboa

The colonial intellectual magazines in the Republic (1912-1937)

The debate that was in the base of the construction of the Portuguese colonial thought was highly mediated and diffused by the independent colonial intellectual press. The importance of classifying this press and its agents lead us to choose four titles of metropolitan magazines, the Revista Colonial (1912), Revista Colonial (1913-23), Gazeta das Colónias (1924-26) and Portugal Colonial (1931-37), which will help us to fundament a classification and to equate the main moments of a period without univocal positions and for that reason allowed us to understand and establish their scope and limits. Montly, weekly or fortnightly, these magazines made their appearance through a manifest with the purpose of reaching and gaining the adherence of a large public and with clear programmatic intentions that varied between ideologycal certainties and the democratic will to open one/to the public space of participated reflexion and discussion. Subsidized by groups of interest, independent from the governments, they could support or not support parties and public figures; nevertheless they claimed a cultural role of moralizing politics and correcting petty politics deviations. In the fundamental questions they presented solutions and different paths to the edification of a Portuguese Empire within an idea of modernity that was being imposed to the European space. Between 1912 and 1933 these magazines accompanied the main questions of the colonial republican moment and the necessity for their creation to update the debate, justifies their importance and longevity, as well as the attention we now pay them as examples of a larger universe.


 BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES


Adelaide Vieira Machado

Célia Reis graduated in History from the Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Master in History of the Twentieth Century and PhD student in the same institution, where she integrates the Institute of Contemporary History. She teaches in Torres Vedras. Besides other studies, she has been dedicated to the analysis of colonial issues in the late nineteenth century – early twentieth century, mainly the Portuguese situation in the East. She is a regular contributor at scientific meetings. She published several articles, book chapters, highlighting contributions to the 4th volume of História dos Portugueses no Extremo Oriente (History of the Portuguese in the Far East), and three books, including O Padroado Português no Extremo Oriente na Primeira República (The Portuguese Patronage in the Far East in the First Republic).

Diego Schibelinski is member of the Laboratory for African Historical Studies (LEHAf) and Master’s student in cultural history postgraduate program at the Federal University of Santa Catarina (Brazil). His final paper is about politics and humor in the illustrated press of Lisbon during the First Portuguese Republic.

Isadora de Ataíde Fonseca 

Josenildo de Jesus Pereira graduated in History Degree from the Federal University of Maranhão-UFMA (1986), holds a Master’s Degree in Social History from the Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo (2001) and a Ph.D. in Social History from the University of São Paulo (2006). He is Associate Professor I of the Federal University of Maranhão – UFMA. He is a permanent professor of the Graduate Program in Social History at UFMA and teaches the discipline History of Africa in the Department of History-UFMA. Has experience research in History of Africa and Brazil Empire with emphasis on the themes: Modern Slavery, Education and Ethnic-racial relations, and colonialism.

Sérgio Neto has a Ph.D. degree in Contemporary History and International Comparative Studies from the University of Coimbra. His thesis focused on Norton de Matos colonial mind, between the period of the Constitutional Monarchy and the New State Regime. In 2007 he completed a Masters in Contemporary History at the College of Humanities of the University of Coimbra, with the presentation of a dissertation about Cape Verde. In 2008 he published is first book, entitled Martyr colony, model colony: Cape Verde in Portuguese colonial mind (1925-1965). In 2010 this book was distinguished with an honorable mention of the Award Victor de Sá, a Contemporary History Award for Young Researchers, from the University of Minho. In 2001 he was awarded with the Research Stimulus Prize of the Science Service of the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation. He’s a researcher at the Center for Interdisciplinary Studies of the Twentieth Century, of the University of Coimbra-CEIS20. He has participated in national and international conferences and has integrated various committees of scientific meetings. He is the author of several articles published in Portugal and abroad.

Sónia Isabel Duarte Pereira Henrique holds a Master in Information Science and Documentation, in the variant of Archival Science at the Faculty of Social and Human Sciences, Universidade Nova de Lisboa. She is currently a PhD student in Historical Archival Science at the same Faculty. The study object of the research to the development of the doctoral thesis comprises the archives of the General Board of Overseas (1835-1910), guarded by the Portuguese Arquivo Histórico Ultramarino.

Tânia Regina de Luca is Professor of the undergraduate and post-graduate course in History at Unesp / Assis. Her research areas: History of Brazilian Republic; Historiography; Social History of Culture; History of the Press; History of Intellectuals; construction of discourses around the nation and nationalism. She is currently developing research on the press, between the final decades of the nineteenth and the first decades of the next century. She is the principal investigator of the thematic project The transatlantic circulation of printed matter. The globalization of culture in the nineteenth century, funded by Fapesp. CNPq Productivity Grant, Level 1B.

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