P14 – “Women” and colonial periodical press 

24.05.2017, Amphitheater II, FLUL

P14.A – 14.30-15.50 | P14.B – 16.00-17.20

Jessica Falconi – CeSA/CSG-ISEG, Portugal

Doris Wieser – CEC/FLUL, Portugal

Abstract: Studies on the role of women in the former Portuguese colonial empire are relatively recent. Regarding more specifically the writing of women in the press, investigation has focused mainly literary collaboration of prominent voices of Portuguese-speaking literatures emerged in former colonial areas, as in the case of Noemia de Sousa (Mozambique), Alda Lara (Angola), Alda do Espirito Santo (São Tomé), among others. However, the contribution of women in the periodicals of the various colonial spaces, both in so-called “Páginas femininas” or “Páginas da mulher” and in other sections and materials, remains almost unexplored. How did so-called “female” materials, published in newspapers by women, convey colonial discourse and/or open space for alternative concerns and positions? In what way can the colonial periodical press be considered a privileged domain to problematize the category “women” as a supposedly unitary subject?

We intend to address in this panel both the writing of women living in the colonies and women living in Portugal who wrote on colonial matters. Our goal is stressing the plurality and diversity of journalistic writing experiences of female authors by analyzing trajectories and texts able to illuminate gender, race and class constructions, as well as interpretations and visions of colonial discourse.

Keywords: Women, Colonial Discourse, Female Authors, Gender


P14.A – 14.30-15.50


1. Ana Maria Pessoa – Escola Superior de Educação do Instituto Politécnico de Setúbal, Portugal

Empire in the feminin

The magazine Império (Empire)(May, 1951- September, 1956), was published in Lourenço
Marques (now Maputo) Mozambique, from May 1951 to September 1956. Império’s director, Mendes da Fonseca, outlined its aims in the first editorial: “make known to the Portuguese of overseas notable achievements made everyday in the Motherland; inform our metropolitan brothers of sacrifices, heroic struggles against nature itself, victories and defeats during the occupation of the Empire and the epopee of the people that, do today as they did in the past, and mark their unique presence in all continents. Ultimately, the populations of overseas territories will know themselves even better via this magazine as here, through an intimate communion of ideas and efforts, all will be remembered”. This research paper explores gender and education using the magazine Império. Specifically, we focus on what was written about or by women, what was advocated as female appropriate education, and the relationship established with the ethnic question. Império did not have women as their target audience and is it remarkable to observe how, unintentionally, what was considered to be the suitable role of women in colonial society is portrayed.

Keywords: women, feminine authorship, colonialism, Mozambique, printed press


2. Elisabeth Battista – Universidade do Estado de Mato Grosso – UNEMAT, Brasil

Colonial literary press: political and cultural incursions in magazine – the case of Maria Archer

When mapping territories of experiences in the ambit of the relations between literature, press and social life in the countries of Portuguese language, we have noted that the writer and journalist Maria Archer, a name that marked the Portuguese life and culture, inaugurated her traveling destiny at the age of ten, when she went to Mozambique to live with her parents. This detail of Maria Archer’s biography will help to understand her bibliography of colonial thematic published either in books, or in periodical, or still in specialist magazines such as O Mundo Português, Portugal Colonial and Ultramar. The colonial theme constitutes, for a while, the catalizing motive of her work, in which she has conferred aesthetic materiality to her vision of the African countries she was able to know. In the horizon of our interest it is the search to understand how her incursions as itinerant and attentive resident, offers material for her literary practice and for the exercise of capturing the soul of the peoples in Africa. In this sense, our study has the intention of recovering and give visibility to the participation of the mentioned author in the literary award ‘colonial literature’, of annual periodicity, that lasted until 1969, by the initiative of the AGC – Agência Geral da Colónias, which spirit and purpose were to stimulate the production of texts about the old Portuguese‘overseas provinces’ viewing the dissemination of the overseas history and news.

Keywords: Literature and press, Colonial literature, Narratives, Cadernos coloniais, Maria Archer


3. Alexandra Guedes Pinto – FLUP, Portugal, Isabel Margarida Duarte – CLUP, FLUP, Portugal, Maria Aldina Marques – ILCH, UMinho, Portugal, Ana Catarina Almeida e Pinho – FLUP, Portugal

The building of Portuguese identity and the identity of woman in magazines of the Estado Novo

The present study is part of the international project ‘MEMITA’ – “Memory, identity, integration to identify analysis models in media communication” – viewing the analysis of the construction of Portuguese identity and the identity of woman in magazines of the Estado Novo, such as Mundo Gráfico, A Esfera and Portugal Colonial. The metaphor valorising the ‘paradise’, by convoking a glorious past and a present of work and order, helped the construction of a Portugal, prosperous, grandiose and inspiring national pride. Colonialist imperial identity is build, times enough, by using the example of the British Empire which, as a model, contributes to legitimize the survival of the Portuguese Empire. With the Second World War, the image of Portugal as paradise is reinforced, through metaphors such as fatherland-paradise, nest, blossoming little corner, light, star, lighthouse, in other words, an idealized locus.

In this context, the image of woman is also subjugated to the imposition of Salazar’s regime ideology, portraying an ideal woman: good mother, good wife and fairy of the home. In the sections ‘Feminine Page’ of the magazines Mundo Gráfico and A Esfera, the home appears as a miniature representation of the Fatherland: the woman is responsible for the maintenance of order and for the care of the home, but always under the command of a male personage. There are abundant acts of directive speech, of deontic nature, that mark the pedagogic discourse, moralist and diffuser of the State’s propaganda

Keywords: Portuguese identity, Woman identity, Estado Novo, Press


4. Ângela Sofia Benoliel Coutinho – IPRI – Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal

Women in Cape-Verde private colonial press (1877-1975)

According to the historian João Nobre de Oliveira, ‘(…) Cape Verde was the pionner in the introduction of press in Portuguese Africa by starting to print its Oficial Bulletin in 1842’ (Oliveira, 1998, 17). Private press made its appearance in the archipelago with the periodical ‘O Independente’, in 1877. Nobre de Oliveira identified 38 titles published between that year and 1936, considering that they represented ‘a press of cape-verdians for cape-verdians’ (Oliveira, 1998, 115), as both the owners and the journalists were born in the islands, were they lived, and wrote to an islander public mainly about matters of local interest. Feminine collaboration started still in the 19th century, in the ‘Novo Almanaque de Lembranças Luso-Brasileiro’, being particularly proeminent the names of Antónia Gertrudes Pusich, Maria Luísa de Sena Barcelos, Gertrudes Ferreira Lima and Maria de Spencer Freitas, all born in Cape-Verde.

For this paper it will be done an inedit approach to the women writers that collaborated with cape-verdian private colonial press, from 1877 until 1975, looking, on one hand, to reconstruct their intelectual trajectories, and on the other, to identify both the genres they used to express themselves and the themes approached, along the different periods of Cape Verde Contemporary History.

Keywords: Women, press, colonial, Cape Verde Portugal/ Cape Verde


P14.B – 16.00-17.20


5. Cristiane Navarrete Tolomei – Universidade Federal do Maranhão, Brasil

Maria Firmina dos Reis: a feminine voice against slavery in the press from Maranhão from the 19th century

For the present paper we will analyse the participation of Maria Firmina dos Reis in the eighteenth century press, as a literate and a militant. Writer and journalist from Maranhão, Maria Firmina dos Reis has published, in a pioneering way, reflexions. About the relations between masters and slave, positioning herself as a dissonant voice in the press about slavery in Maranhão in the 19th century. She was one of the few abolitionist black women of her time, a movement dominate by men and, mostly, from the white and slaver elite, which after being educated outside Brazil brought back liberal and abolitionist ideals. We are specifically interested in following the intervention of Maria Firmina dos Reis in the newspapers A Verdadeira Marmota, Semanário Maranhense and Pacotilha, publications that appeared in a country still dominated by colonial remnants, maintaining itself as a patriarchal and slaver society, despite of the independence of 1822. Furthermore, Maria Firmina dos Reis brings an innovation to her text, when she portraits the slaves not as subalterns, but people with a voice and equal to the whites.

Keywords: Maria Firmina dos Reis, Feminine Literature, Periodicals from Maranhão, Slavery, Negritude


 6. Brenda Coutinho – Government College of Arts, Science and Commerce Quepem, Goa, India

Caught Between Crosshairs Of Development Conundrum: Traditional Goan Women Negotiating Hustle-Bustle Of British Indian Cities.  Reviewing The Goan World (1924-40)

Since the Portuguese set foot on the sands of Goa in 1510, the social, cultural, and religious fabric of Goa underwent a metamorphosis. Albuquerque saw this ‘Padroado’ as the ‘chave de toda a India’. The agrarian society was economically frail and plagued by barbaric social evil practices. The colonizer tried to correct the situation, especially for women, with several legislations, albeit considering its own imperial interests. Colonial press of the 19th and 20th century reflects that, even till the mid 19th century women continued to be looked upon as the ‘second sex’, an expression coined by Elaine Showalter. Although the landmark Portuguese Civil Code provisioned equal property rights, yet, females were seen merely as fit only for procreation and domestic responsibilities. This glaring paradox is evident from print media records including newspapers such as ‘The Goan World’ published by the Indo-Portuguese Publicity Bureau (1924-1940). Based on archival sources and oral narratives of citizens of Portuguese India presently in the ‘winter of their lives’, this paper attempts to deconstruct the mindset prevalent during the colonial period. However, by the fag end of the Portuguese rule, the colonial woman made significant inroads into several fields despite being repressed in a patriarchal society handicapped by caste system, colonial policies, economic dependence, migration, cultural and religious impositions, and derogatory social roles.

Keywords: Portuguese India, women, subaltern, attitude


7. Cielo Festino – Universidade Paulista, São Paulo, Brasil

The Jornal de Férias of the family Correia Afonso: an exercise of feminine writing in Goa

Tharu and Lalita (1991) in Women Writing in India, a historiography of Indian literature of feminine authorship, point to autobiography as one of the first narrative manifestations through which women mark their shift from the condition of being figures of epic narratives or characters in men´s literature, to becoming authors themselves. These autobiographic narratives, frequently hidden from husbands and mothers-in-law, are exercises of writing in which women writers tell about their lives in the intimacy of their homes in a realistic style that reveals both their desires and frustrations. Soon after, these narratives were to be transformed into short stories and romances. Departing from these reflections, this paper discusses a form of manuscript family periodical, current among Goan Catholic elite families at the beginning of the twentieth century, by focusing on the Jornal de Férias (1916-1920), written by the members of the illustrious Correia Afonso family. Our main argument is that it was in the context of this practice of Goan writing that prominent women like Propércia Correia Afonso (1882-1944), who would become one of the first Goan feminists (Couto, 2005),  gave their first steps, as future writers, translators and teachers, during the first half of the twentieth century.  As such, these women rewrote, from a feminine perspective, the proverb that says that “He who learns to write, drives a horse and cart” (Tagore, “The Exercise Book”)

Keywords: Manuscript newspapers, Family newspapers, Feminine authorship


8. Fernando Sales Lopes – independent researcher

Deolinda da Conceição (1913-1957) and Feminine journalism

Deolinda da Conceição is born in Macao during the complicated times of the birth of the Portuguese and Chinese republics. Free and independent, marries at the age of 18 and, already with two children, leaves with her husband to Shanghai, were she will experience the reality of war, even if still catching the times of splendour of the Oriental Paris. Already living a process of divorce, Diolinda and her children head to Hong-Kong, where she is received as a war refugee, develops professional activity as teacher and starts her relation with press with translation of the service of British news agencies to the newspaper A Voz de Macau. Already divorced, she returns to Macao to suffer the hypocrisy of the conservative local society, being excused from teaching, even if maintained access to the press. In the “Notícias de Macau”, as an editor and coordinator of the ‘Feminine Supplement’, Deolinda reveals herself as a modern woman, with free spirit, deeply linked to Portugal and aligned with the journalism and feminine writing of her time, which she echoes in the city.

One of the rare women writers of Portuguese expression of Macao, Deolinda da Conceição will be revisited as a woman and a journalist that argued in favour of new mentalities, more open and liberating, particularly of woman, and points injustices, social prejudices, racial discriminations and situations of the life of the Chinese community, alongside with a genuine witness of the suffers of war narrated in the feminine.

Keywords: Women, Deolinda da Conceição, Press, Macao, “Notícias de Macau”, Feminine Journalism, II World War, Social questions, Racial discrimination


BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES


Alexandra Guedes Pinto is Lecturer in Linguistics at the Faculty of Arts, University of Porto. Her research areas are: Pragmatics, Discourse Analysis – advertising discourse; political discourse; scientific discourse; Interactional Sociolinguistics. She is member of CLUP – Center of Linguistics of University of Porto – and of several international projects such as MEMITA. She coordinates the organization of JADIS – International Discourse Analysis Meeting – (6th edition on October 2016) and for the edition of REDIS – Journal of Discourse Studies – published by CLUP/FLUP (number five published on January 2017).

Ana Catarina Fonseca Almeida e Pinho is PhD student in Language Sciences, Linguistics variant, at the Faculty of Arts of the University of Porto. She holds a Master degree in Editorial Studies by the University of Aveiro. She is integrated in the International network MEMITA – Memory and Identity – where she currently conducts research on the press of the “Estado Novo” regime.

Ana Maria Pessoa is 59 years old and is a teacher at the School of Education of the IPS.
Graduate in History (1980); Post Graduation in Librarianship (1984); Master in History of Education (1996) and PHD in the same area (2006).
Teacher and head of several Curricular Units as History of Media (for Social Comunication Course and for Portuguese Deaf Language). She is integrated in several projets such as:
Empowering EPortfolio Process (partnership with Finland – Hamk University, Belgium, Ireland, Danmark); and INOVAR – project about Schools and innovation experiencies (under the coordination of Joaquim Pintassilgo, from Education Institute, Lisbon University), in which she works on a monography about Jardim Infantil Pestalozzi.

Ângela Sofia Benoliel Coutinho is a researcher at the IPRI / Nova University of Lisbon and at the CEIS20 / Coimbra University. She received her doctorate in Contemporary African History from the University of Paris, Sorbonne in 2005. From 2001 to 2007 she has lectured in universities in France and in Cape Verde and from 2007 to 2013 she received a post-doctoral scholarship from the Foundation for Science and Technology/ Science Ministry in Portugal Currently she is under contract to the Cape Verde Jewish Heritage Project Inc. (Washington) and to the Rosa Luxemburg Foundation (Dakar representation), carrying out research projects. She also collaborates with the CIDAC (Portugal) and with the Amílcar Cabral Foundation and António Canuto Foundation (Cape Verde).

Brenda Coutinho completed her Masters Degree in English Literature in 1999 and subsequently, M.Phil in English Literature in 2007. She enjoys creative writing, and has several publications to her credit. She is also the author of the Novel, ‘A Matter of Time: Vignettes of a Golden Childhood in Goa’, (ISBN 978-93-80739-58-8) published in 2013. Two of her short stories have been published by Fundação Oriente, Goa in their Anthologies of Short Stories by Goan Authors. She is currently affiliated to the Government College of Arts, Science, and Commerce Quepem, Goa, in the capacity of Assistant Professor (English).

Cielo G. Festino holds a PhD in Indian Literature in English from University of S.Paulo, Brazil (2005). She also attended a post-doctoral program on the teaching of literatures in English at the same University (2007-2009) with a scholarship from FAPESP, and a second post-doctoral program on Post-colonial literary genres at Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil (2011-2012). At the present she teaches English at Universidade Paulista, São Paulo, Brazil, and collaborates with the Master´s programme at Universidade Federal de Tocantins, Porto Nacional, Brazil. She is a member of the thematic project “Thinking Goa. A Singular Library in Portuguese” (USP/FAPESP). She has different publications on Indian literature in English and in the bhashas.

Cristiane Tolomei Navarrete is Associate Professor of Literatures in Portuguese at Universidade Federal do Maranhão (UFMA), Bacabal, Maranhão, Brazil. She holds a PhD in Comparative Studies of Literatures in Portuguese from University of S. Paulo (USP). She has been postdoctoral scholar in History and Literary Criticism – UNESP – and Literature and Other Forms of Knowledge – USP. She is Coordinator of the Studies and Research Group “Literature and Press” (GEPELI/CNPq), with the projects “Romanticism and Portuguese Realism in the Maranhao’s 19th-century press” (GEPELI/UFMA) and “The context of production and publication, literary innovations and linguistic and identity issues of the Grupo Maranhaense in Maranhao’s periodical 19th-century press” (UFMA/FAPEMA). She is Member of the research groups “Eça/USP”; “Papulos Avulsos”, linked to the Laboratory of Ecdótica (LABEC/UFF); and “Egypt and other reports: critical-genetic edition of Eça de Queirós’s travel narratives”.

Doris Wieser holds a PhD in Ibero-romance Literature from the University of Göttingen with a thesis on the crime novel in Latin America. She was a postdoctoral fellow of the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation at the Centre for African, Asian and Latin American Studies (CEsA / ISEG) at the University of Lisbon from 2014 to 2016. With her current research project on political and literary constructions of national identities in Angola, Mozambique and Portugal, she has been awarded the FCT Researcher competition (Investigador FCT) and has been working at the CEC (FLUL) since January 2017. From 2008 to 2016 she was an research and teaching associate at the Department of Romance Philology at the University of Göttingen. She concluded her Magister in Hispanic, Lusophone and German Philology at the University of Heidelberg.

Elisabeth Battista is Professor and Director of the Faculty of Education and Language – FACEL, University Campus of Cáceres, University of the State of Mato Grosso – UNEMAT. She works in the Postgraduate Program, Masters and Doctorate in Literary Studies PPGEL. His researches, since the Master’s, at the University of São Paulo, are located in the field of Comparative Literature, acting in the scope of Portuguese-language literature. Are you the author of the book, MARIA ARCHER – The legacy of a traveling writer, launched by the publisher Colibri, Portugal.

Fernando Sales Lopes is a professional journalist graduated in History and holds a MA in Intercultural Relations. His main research field focus on identity studies, namely Macau’s festivities and the identity of the Macanese community through the history of diet and eating habits, topics on which he authored monographic studies, published numerous articles, lectured and produced a documentary series of two dozen episodes. Author of poetry books, librettos and a youthful novel, he also authored the hymn of the cultural closing session of the Macau Handover Ceremony in December 19, 1999.

Isabel Margarida Duarte is Associate Professor, Linguistics, Faculty of Arts, University of Porto. Research areas: Pragmatics and discourse analysis (speech report, discourse markers, oral discourse); contrastive linguistics of Romance languages; application of Linguistics to the teaching of Portuguese (as a mother tongue and as a foreign language). Member of the network MEMITA.

Jessica Falconi 

Maria Aldina Marques is Lecturer in linguistics, Instituto de Letras e Ciências Humanas, University of Minho. Research areas: discourse analysis (political discourse; scientific discourse and media discourse); oral speech (discourse markers). Member of the network MEMITA.

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