P15 – Scientific Discourse in Colonial Periodical Press

24.05.2017, 10.30-11.50, Amphitheater II, FLUL

Ana Roque – CH-ULisboa. Centro de História. Faculdade de Letras. Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal

Cátia Miriam da Costa – CEI, ISCTE-IUL, Portugal

Abstract: Scientific discourse was disseminated along different printed sources. In the 19th century not only books, but a new scientific periodical press and some newspapers’ sections stimulated a new way to discuss scientific subjects. The discussion between peers in scientific journals and the divulgation of scientific knowledge among newspapers’ readers transformed the way science was offered to society and its role in the design of public policies. The colonial periodical press was not an exception as even some scientific journals were created explicitly to discuss and disseminate “colonial science”.

This panel addresses the discussion on the circulation of scientific knowledge in colonial periodical printed press (scientific or general, published in the colonies or in the metropolis) and its impact in society. How did periodical press benefited from the opportunity to serve as a vehicle of the scientific discourse? How did this influence or change the scientific discourse? What was the impact of this discourse in the public opinion in the colonies and in the metropolis? These are some of the topics we expect to discuss in this panel considering their possible relevance when analysing the relation scientific discourse / periodical press.

Keywords: Scientific discourse, colonial periodical press, scientific periodical press, colonial science, scientific knowledge


1. João Otávio Tomazini Fardin, Pedro Ernesto Miranda Rampazo, e Marcio Lucas Moreira Rodrigues, USC – Universidade do Sagrado Coração, Brasil

Medicine and press: the medical ideology in the newspaper O Patriota (1813-1814)

O Patriota can be understood as a pioneer newspaper of the scientific press in Brazil. With the Royal insignia, this mean of promotion spread researches and literary productions at the time, such as the medical statements of Rio de Janeiro. Starting from literary work provided by Biblioteca Nacional Digital (Digital National Library) it can be analyzed the periodical literature produced between the years of 1813 and 1814 totalizing eighteen examples containing studies that focus on the causes of endemic and epidemic diseases in the capital.  These are recordings produced by professionals in the field in which the medical concepts at the time were indicated. Therefore, this newspaper is an interesting form to study the medical concept existent in Rio de Janeiro in the early 19th century. It has been noticed that this fact has no connection to the technological answers and solutions presented until the 19th century. However, doctors ponder that in their studies they have to analyze and intermediate the factors considered “non-natural” as: city geography, public and personal hygiene, eating habits and moral practices; assembling a medical practice not focusing on agents but on the environment where the diseases are developed.

Keywords: Scientific press, Rio de Janeiro, medicine


2. Maria João Soares e Maria Manuel Torrão, Centro de História, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal

History, Memoirs and oral tradition at the Almanaque de Lembranças Luso-Brasileiro (1851-1900)

The Almanaque de Lembranças Luso-Brasileiro founded in Portugal in 1851 and published until 1932 had a remarkable impact in the intellectual circles of the archipelago of Cape Verde during the second half of the 19th century. The panorama of local periodical press was marked by the intermittency of a restrict number of periodicals, whose lack of financial viability dictated their early end. The lettered elite that came out of the public schools of Brava and of the city of Praia and later from the Seminary-Lyceum, that socialized in different cultural and recreational societies, lacked means to express its voice. One of the vehicles found was precisely this almanac, a periodical with a Lusophone and Lusograph scale that received contributes from the different parts of the Empire. The Cape Verde elite had a very relevant participation in this medium, namely through texts about the history, memory and tradition of the archipelago.

In this study it is aimed to analyse what type of discourse encapsulated the diffusion of this themes, with a particular focus on the scientific and literary discourses.

Keywords: Cape Verde, History, Memory, Oral tradition


3.  Ana Roque, CH-ULisboa. Centro de História, Faculdade de Letras, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal  e Cátia Miriam Costa, Centro de Estudos Internacionais (ISCTE-IUL), Portugal

The National Colonial Congresses: scientific discourse and colonial periodical press

The National Colonial Congresses were an initiative of the Sociedade de Geografia de Lisboa with the aim to gather specialists in colonial matters. The crossover / multiversity of participants should mark the debates and congregate conclusion around the discussion of the chief trends of the colonial politics and of its application in the territories under Portuguese domain. There were three of these congresses, in 1901, 1924 and 1930, each of them conditioned by a distinct political context – Constitutional Monarchy, First Republic, Military Dictatorship – that determined the nature and impact of the discussions at presence. The first two had a central role in the debate about colonial questions, with immediate repercussions at the colonial periodical press; the third, centred in the discussion of the Colonial Act, had an eminently political profile, and more closed and less participated. The list of delegates of the first two congresses, which included professional associations of journalists and scientific and professional bodies, motivated  closer monitoring of the meetings, which allows to question how the scientific discourses prepared for theses congresses was transposed to the colonial newspapers and scientific publications of the time and which was its preferential target public. We will approach these first two congresses with the objective of underscoring this relation between scientific discourse and its dissemination in the press.

Keywords: National Scientific Congresses, Scientific, colonial periodical press, scientific discourse, Sociedade Geografia de Lisboa


BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES


Ana Cristina Roque holds a PhD in History of the Discoveries and Expansion. She was a professor at the Eduardo Mondlane University (Maputo) and researcher at the Institute of Tropical Scientific Research (Lisbon) where she integrated several cooperation projects with the CPLP countries. Since August 2015, she has been a researcher at the Centro de História of the Faculty of Letters of the University of Lisbon, where she is vice-coordinator of the research line “Science and Empire”.

Cátia Miriam da Costa is graduated in International relations, master in African Studies by the University of Lisbon and doctor in Literature by the University of Évora. Her doctoral thesis, Continuidades e Descontinuidades da Colonização Portuguesa: Literatura e jornalismo entre a utopia e realidade, focused the proto-nationalist discourse at the Angolan press of the beginning of the XX Century. Her Post-doctorate project, Breaking the silence: power and discursive circulation in colonial and post-colonial society, approaches the relations between press, circulation of ideas and intellectuals and its political expression. Has participated in different projects and published in Portugal, Brazil, Spain and England. Presently is a member of the COST Net IS 1210 and co-coordinated the application to the CYTED Net, involving six countries, sixteen universities and seventeen research centres,”COOPMAR: Transatlantic cooperation. Public politics and Iberoamerican sociocultural community”. Is a specialist in analysis of discourse and studies the relations between press, power, culture and science. Has participated in different projects and published in Portugal, Brazil, Spain and United Kingdom. With Adelaide Vieira Machado and Sandra Ataíde Lobo has conceived and promoted the creation of the International Group for Studies of Colonial periodical press of the Portuguese empire (IGSCP-IP).

João Otávio Tomazini Fardin is graduating in History from the University of the Sacred Heart – USC – Bauru / SP. Scholarship holder of the Scientific Initiation Program – IC / CNPq from January to July 2017, with a project related to the teaching of History and new technologies. Volunteer in the PIBIC-EM / CNPq Research Project, relating to the areas of press history and history of science. He was a scholarship of the Initiation to Teaching Program – PIBID/CAPES, in the period 2015/2016.

Marcio Lucas Moreira Rodrigues is a graduating student in History at the Universidade do Sagrado Coração – USC-Bauru, S.Paulo, Brazil. He holds a scholarship of PIBID/CAPES. He is a volunteer collaborator in PIBIC-EM / CNPq Research Project, related to the areas of press history and history of science.

Maria Manuel Torrão holds a PhD in Modern History from the University of the Azores. She is integrated researcher of the History Center of the Faculty of Arts of the University of Lisbon, where she is a member of the research groups Building and Connecting Empires and Cultural Encounters and Intersecting Societies. She was a researcher at the Tropical Scientific Research Institute between 1987 and 2015, where she integrated the Portuguese-Cape Verdean team that elaborated the Cape Verde General History Project for some 20 years (1987-2007), also collaborating in many other cooperation projects with the Republic of Cape Verde. Her research interests include: the history of these islands; the slave trade between Santiago and Spanish America; the economic agents that move in these circuits, and the circulation of material and immaterial culture; the historical cartography of the archipelago, and more recently, the scientific expeditions to the islands. She is author of several articles and book chapters, and she co-organized many international congresses and seminars, and coordinated the edition of documentary collections.

Maria João Soares is Assistant Researcher at the History Center of the Faculty of Arts of the University of Lisbon. She teaches History of Cape Verde at the same university. From 1993 to 2002, she worked together with Portuguese and Cape Verdean researchers on the project “General History of Cape Verde”. In 2005 she concluded public tests on the thematic of the implantation and development of the Catholic Church in Cape Verde, that is the central topic of her investigation, along with the mission and society. Her research interests include: religiosity, creolization, ethnicity, elites, foreign presence and reformist projects in the archipelago of Cape Verde. Her studies cover the chronology from the discovery until the end of the eighteenth century.

Pedro Ernesto Miranda Rampazo is graduating student in History at the Universidade do Sagrado Coração – USC – Bauru / SP. Volunteer collaborator in the Projeto de Pesquisa PIBIC-EM / CNPq, that relates the areas of press history and history of science. He was part of Programa de Iniciação à Docência – PIBID / CAPES, in the period of 2016.

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